COMPUTER BASICS For Beginners Everything From Zero To Hero

Here we explained Everything You Wanted to Know About COMPUTER BASICS From Zero To Hero. This is suitable for all who want to know about computer basics knowledge from beginer to advanced.

What is Computer?

Computer is an advanced electronic machine that is operated under the control of instructions that stored in its own memory.

It accepts the data from input devices likes, Mouse, Keyword, than processes the data in processing unit after that shows the result on output devices likes Monitor, Projector.

Working Process of Computer

A Computer accepts the data entered by user through an input device, and then processes it in the central processing unit (C P U)/Processor and finally gives the result on output device.

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working process of computers

But if we look at it in a very good judgment, any digital computer carries out the following five functions:

Function 1: Takes data as input.

Function 2: Stores the data/instructions in its memory and uses them as required.

Function 3: Processes the data and converts it into useful information.

Function 4: Generates the output.

Function 5: Controls all the above four steps.

Structure of Computer

A computer system is a set of integrated devices of input, output, processing, and store data and information. Computer systems are currently built around at least one digital processing device.

Structure of Computer

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There are five main hardware components in a computer system: Input, Processing, Storage, and Output and Communication devices.

What is Input Device?

 Any computer hardware equipment like mouse, keyboard, etc, from which a computer accepts data entered by user it is called Input device. Input device provides data and control signals to an information processing system for example a computer or other information appliance.

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Input devices of computer

What is Processing Unit / C.P.U.?

C P U stands for Central Processing Unit. It is the brain of Computer System. Central Processing Unit is responsible for all functions and processes. As regards computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system.

central processing unit

 What is Output Device?

A computer shows the processed data (result) on the Output Device such as Monitor, Projector and Printer etc. Output Device converts the electronically generated information into human readable form.

Output Devices

What is Booting?

Booting is the process of starting a computer. There are two types of booting.

  1. Cold Booting
  2. Warm Booting

Cold Booting –

The process of starting the computer is called Cold booting, if your computer is in shutdown mode and you want to start your computer with the help of power button, its process is Cold Booting.

Warm Booting –

The process of restarting a computer is called Warm Booting, if your computer is in working mode and you need to restart the computer for any reason, its process is Warm Booting.

What is Characteristic of Computer?

Computer has become an integral part of human life due to its features, everyone uses a computer according to his or her own ability, and computers have many characteristics.

Speed: – While one takes you a little time to do a small calculation, the computer can do a lot of calculations in less than a second; this speed is provided by the processor.

Accuracy: – Doing error-free work means completing any good work with complete accuracy is another characteristic of computer, no mistake is ever done by computer, computer always gives correct result.

Autonomous: – After a later instruction is given to the computer, the task is done automatically without stopping until the task is completed.

Permanent Storage: – Memory used in computers is used for permanent storage of data, information and instructions. Since information is stored electronically in a computer, the information is less likely to end.

Large Storage Capacity: – Unlimited data and information can be stored in a computer’s external and internal storage media (hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic tape, CD ROM).

Fast Retrieval: – Necessary information can be obtained from information stored in a few seconds by computer use. The use of RAM (Random Access Memory) has made that work even easier.

Quick Decision ability: – The computer analyzes the situation with the ability to make quick decisions based on the instructions given earlier.

Versatility: – Various types of tasks can be done with the help of computer. Modern computers have the ability to do different types of tasks simultaneously.

Secrecy: – The use of a password can make the computer’s work confidential. Only the person who knows the password can view or change the data and programs kept in the computer using the password.

Uniformity of work: – Despite doing the same task repeatedly and continuously, the quality of work of the computer has no effect.

Reliability: – All computers related work is reliable.  It is designed to ease our actions.  And all its parts work well for many days, that too without getting tired.

Diligence: – A computer can perform any task continuously for several hours or several months

How many Types of Computer?

We can categorize computer in two ways: one is the basis of data handling abilities and another is their size.

On the basis of data handling capabilities, there are three types of computer:

  • Analogue Computer
  • Digital Computer
  • Hybrid Computer

Analogue Computer:

Analogue computer is a type of computer that is designed to process analogue data. Analogue data is the always changeable characteristic of physical occurrence such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to show the issue being tackled.

Digital Computer:

Digital Computer is a machine or a device that is designed to perform calculations and logical operations at high speed. Digital Computer accepts the data as input in the form of binary numbers (0 and 1) and processes it with the help of programs that stored in its memory to give the output.

All modern computers such as laptops, desktops including smart phones that we take advantage at home or office are digital computers.

Hybrid Computer

Hybrid computer is the combination of analogue and digital computer’s features that is fast like an analogue computer and has memory and accuracy like digital computers.

Hybrid computer processes both continuous and discrete data and accepts analogue signals and converts them into digital form before processing.

Therefore, it is extensively used in specialized applications where both analogue and digital data is processed.

On the basis of Computer’s size, there are five types:

  • Supercomputer
  • Mainframe computer
  • Minicomputer or Mini frame
  • Workstation
  • Microcomputer/ Personal Computer


 Supercomputers are the largest and fastest computers. They are designed to process massive amount of data. It can process trillions of instructions in a moment. Supercomputer has thousands of interconnected processors.

Supercomputers are especially utilized in scientific and engineering applications, for example weather forecasting, scientific simulations and nuclear energy research.

Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers are designed to support hundreds or thousands of users at the same time. It can support multiple programs all at once, that means it can execute different processes simultaneously.

Minicomputer or Mini frame

Minicomputer is a middle size multiprocessing computer that contains two or more processors and can support 4 to 200 users at one time. Minicomputer is utilized in institutes and departments for undertakings, for example billing, accounting and inventory management.


Workstation is a single user computer that is invented for technical or scientific applications. It has a faster microprocessor, a huge amount of RAM and high speed graphic adapters.

Workstation generally performs a specific job with great expertise; therefore, it is different types such as graphics workstation, music workstation and engineering design workstation.


Microcomputer is a general-purpose computer that is designed for person use, therefore it is also known as a personal computer.  Personal Computer has a microprocessor as a central processing unit, memory, storage area, input unit and output unit.

Laptop and desktop computer is the model of microcomputers. Microcomputer is good for individual work that might be making an assignment, watching a movie, or for office work in the office.

Uses of Computer:

Computers are playing a very important role in almost every field and making our day-to-day tasks more controllable. Computers were only used to perform complex numerical calculations in an earlier time, but they have reached too far and now present lots of different roles.

They are now executing various set of functions from complicated calculations to generating business reports, bill generation to education, programming or development to entertainment, etc.

  • Business
  • Education
  • Healthcare
  • Science
  • Government
  • Banking and Finance
  • Transport
  • Retail and Trade
  • Marketing
  • Publishing
  • Arts and Entertainment
  • Communication
  • Navigation
  • Working from Home
  • Military
  • Social
  • Booking Vacations
  • Security and Surveillance
  • Weather Forecasting
  • Robotics

How Many Generation of Computer?

These days, computer generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up a complete computer system. There are five computer generations known till date. Every generation has been discussed in detail along with their time period.

Generation Period Technology
First 1946-1959 Based on vacuum tube technology
Second 1957-1964 Transistor based technology replaces vacuum tube
Third 1965-1970 Integrated circuit (IC) technology developed
Fourth 1970-1990 VLSI  (Very Large Scale Integrated) technology
Fifth 1990-till date ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology

First Generation:

The era of first generation was from 1946 to 1959. The computers of first generation used vacuum tubes as the vital parts for memory and hardware for CPU (Central Processing Unit).

Second Generation:

The era of second generation was from 1959 to 1965. In Second generation, transistors were used because these are cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than vacuum tubes, that was used in first generation of computer.

Third Generation:

The era of third generation was from 1965 to 1971. The computers of third generation used Integrated Circuits (ICs) in position of transistors. A single IC has a lot of transistors, resistors, and capacitors in conjunction with the associated circuitry.

Fourth Generation:

The time of fourth generation was from 1971to 1980. Fourth generation Computers make use of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits.

VLSI is an integrated circuit known as IC that contains approximately 5000 transistors and extra circuit elements with their associated circuits on a solitary chip made it conceivable to have microcomputers of fourth generation.

Fifth Generation:

The time of fifth generation is 1980 to till date. In the fifth generation, VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) technology is changed over into ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, bringing about the creation of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic segments.

Who is the Father of Computer?

English mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage is known as the Father of Computer because he conceived the first automatic digital computer.

Charles Babbage was born on December 26, 1791 in Walworth district of south London, England and died on October 18, 1871.


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